Support Through Psych-
document was originally written from old US Army's Psychological
Operations handbooks and other sources by CIA employees. According
to the Contra Edgar Chamorro, was
translated from English to Spanish by 'John Kirkpatrick' with
he and other cabecillas Contras helping in the proofreading
of the translation .
The final authorship was given to 'Tayacan'. This is a manual
for the training of terrorists in psycological operations. It
is described as to be applied to the concrete case of the 'christian'
and 'democratic crusade' waged against Nicaragua by the Contras.
This document is also another link between the crimes commited
by the Contras and the US goverment's policy of sponsoring terror
and war crimes against Nicaragua; hence it ultimately points the
finger of responsability to the heads of the Contra and the US
administration and policymakers of Reagan and Bush I era for the
death of more than
38,000 men, women and children, and for the destruction
of the physical infrastructure of Nicaragua that still hampers
the economic development of that unfortunate country .
In the meantime, Justice awaits.
of Persuasion in Talks and
warfare is essentially a political war. Therefore, its area of
operations exceeds the territorial limits of conventional warfare,
to penetrate the political entity itself: the "political animal"
that Aristotle defined. In effect,the human being should be considered
the priority objective in a political war. And conceived as the
military target of guerrilla war, the human being has his most
critical point in his mind. Once his mind has been reached, the"political
animal" has been defeated, without necessarily receiving bullets.
warfare is born and grows in the political environment; in the
constant combat to dominate that area of political mentality that
is inherent to all human beings and which collectively constitutes
the "environment" in which guerrilla warfare move s, and which
is where precisely its victory or failure is defined.
of guerrilla warfare as political war turns Psychological Operations
into the decisive factor of the results. The target, then, is
the minds of the population, all the population: our troops, the
enemy troops and the civilian population.
is a manual for the training of guerrillas in psychological operations,
and its application to the concrete case of the Christian and
democratic crusade being waged in Nicaragua by the Freedom Commandos.
of this book is to introduce the guerrilla student to the psychological
operations techniques that will be of immediate and practical
value to him in guerrilla warfare. This section is introductory
and general; subsequent sections will cover e ach point set forth
here in more detail.
of the environment of guerrilla warfare does not permit sophisticated
psychological operations, and it becomes necessary for the chiefs
of groups, chiefs of detachments and squadron leaders to have
the ability to carry out, with minimal instruc tions from the
higher levels, psychological action operations with the contacts
that are thoroughly aware of the situation, i.e. the foundations.
In order to
obtain the maximum results from the psychological operations in
guerrilla warfare, every combatant should be as highly motivated
to carry out propaganda face to face as he is a combatant. This
means that the individual political awareness of t he guerrilla
of the reason for his struggle will be as acute as his ability
Such a political
awareness and motivation is obtained through the dynamic of groups
and self-criticism, as a standard method of instruction for the
guerrilla training and operations. Group discussions raise the
spirit and improve the unity of thought of t he guerrilla training
and operations. Group discussions raise he spirit and improve
the unity of thought of the guerrilla squads and exercise social
pressure on the weak members to carry out a better role in future
training or in combative action. Self-cr iticism is in terms of
one's contribution or defects in his contribution to the cause,
to the movement, the struggle, etc.; and gives a positive individual
commitment to the mission of the group.
result is a guerrilla who can persuasively justify his actions
when he comes into contact with any member of the People of Nicaragua,
and especially with himself and his fellow guerrillas in dealing
with the vicissitudes of guerrilla warfare . This means that every
guerrilla will be persuasive in his face-to-face communication
- propagandist-combatant - ins his contact with the people; he
should be able to give 5 or 10 logical reasons why, for example,
a peasant should give him cloth, needle and thread to mend his
clothes. When the guerrilla behaves in this manner, enemy propaganda
will never succeed in making him an enemy in the eyes of the people.
It also means that hunger, cold, fatigue and insecurity will have
a meaning, psychologically, in the cause of the struggle due to
his constant orientation.
includes every act carried out, and the good impression that this
armed force causes will result in positive attitudes in the population
toward that force; and it does not include forced indoctrination.
Armed propaganda improves the beha vior of the population toward
them, and it is not achieved by force.
that a guerilla armed unit in a rural town will not give the impression
that arms are their strength over the peasants, but rather that
they are the strength of the peasants against the Sandinista government
of repression. This is achieved thro ugh a close identification
with the people, as follows: hanging up weapons and working together
with them on their crops, in construction, in the harvesting of
grains, in fishing, etc.; explanations to young men about basic
weapons, e.g. giving them an un loaded weapon and letting them
touch it, see it, etc.; describing in a rudimentary manner its
operation; describing with simple slogans how weapons will serve
the people to win their freedom; demanding the requests by the
people for hospitals and educatio n, reducing taxes, etc.
acts have as their goal the creation of an identification of the
people with the weapons and the guerrillas who carry them, so
that the population feels that the weapons are, indirectly, their
weapon to protect them and help them in the struggle against a
regime of oppression. Implicit terror always accompanies weapons,
since the people are internally "aware" that they can be used
against them, but as long as explicit coercion is avoided, positive
attitudes can be achieved with respect to the pr esence of armed
guerrillas within the population.
Teams (EPA) are formed through a careful selection of persuasive
and highly motivated guerrillas who move about within the population,
encouraging the people to support the guerrillas and put up resistance
against the enemy. It combines a high degree of political awareness
and the "armed" propaganda ability of the guerrillas toward a
planned, programmed, and controlled effort.
selection of the staff, based on their persuasiveness in informal
discussions and their ability in combat, is more important than
their degree of education or the training program. The tactics
of the Armed Propaganda Teams are carried out covertly, and should
be parallel to the tactical effort in guerrilla warfare. The knowledge
of the psychology of the population is primary for the Armed Propaganda
Teams, but much more intelligence data will be obtained from an
EPA program in the area of operations.
and Control of the "Front" Organizations
and control of "front" (or facade) organizations is carried out
through subjective internal control at group meetings of "inside
cadres," and the calculations of the time for the fusion of these
combined efforts to be applied to the masses .
citizens-doctors, lawyers, businessmen, teachers, etc.-will be
recruited initially as "Social Crusaders" in typically "innocuous"
movements in the area of operations. When their "involvement"
with the clandestine organization is revealed to them, this supplies
the psychological pressure to use them as "inside cadres" in groups
to which they already belong or of which they can be members.
will receive instruction in techniques of persuasion over control
of target groups to support our democratic revolution, through
a gradual and skillful process. A cell control system isolates
individuals from one another, and at the appropriate moment, their
influence is used for the fusion of groups in a united national
of Meetings and Mass Assemblies
of mass meetings in support of guerrilla warfare is carried out
internally through a covert commando element, bodyguards, messengers,
shock forces (initiators of incidents), placard carriers (also
used for making signals), shouters of slogans, everything under
the control of the outside commando element.
When the cadres
are placed or recruited in organizations such as labor unions,
youth groups agrarian organizations or professional associations,
they will begin to manipulate the objectives of the groups. The
psychological apparatus of our movement through inside cadres
prepares a mental attitude which at the crucial moment can be
turned into a fury of justified violence.
small group of guerrillas infiltrated within the masses this can
be carried out; they will have the mission of agitating by giving
the impression that there are many of them and that they have
a large popular backing. Using the tactics of a force of 200-300
agitators, a demonstration can be created in which 10,000-20,000
persons take part.
of Contacts with Their Roots in Reality
of local contacts who are familiar with the deep reality is achieved
through the exploitation of the social and political weaknesses
of the target society, with propagandist-combatant guerrillas,
armed propaganda, armed propaganda teams, cover organizations
and mass meetings.
guerrilla is the result of a continuous program of indoctrination
and motivation. They will have the mission of showing the people
how great and fair our movement is in the eyes of all Nicaraguans
and the world. Identifying them selves with our people, they will
increase the sympathy towards our movement, which will result
in greater support of the population for the freedom commandos,
taking away support for the regime in power.
will extend this identification process of the people with the
Christian guerrillas, providing converging points against the
Propaganda Teams provide a several-stage program of persuasive
planning in guerrilla warfare in all areas of the country. Also,
these teams are the "eyes and ears" of our movement.
and control of the cover organizations in guerrilla warfare will
give our movement the ability to create a "whiplash" effect within
the population when the order for fusion is given. When the infiltration
and internal subjective control ha ve been developed in a manner
parallel to other guerrilla activities, a comandante of ours will
literally be able to shake up the Sandinista structure, and replace
The mass assemblies
and meetings are the culmination of a wide base support among
the population, and it comes about in the later phases of the
operation. This is the moment in which the overthrow can be achieved
and our revolution can become an open one, requiring the close
collaboration of the entire population of the country, and of
contacts with their roots in reality.
effort in guerrilla warfare is directed at the weaknesses of the
enemy and at destroying their military resistance capacity, and
should be parallel to a psychological effort to weaken and destroy
their sociopolitical capacity at the same time. In guerrilla warfare,
more than in any other type of military effort, the psychological
activities should be simultaneous with the military ones, in order
to achieve the objectives desired.
of this section is to familiarize the guerrilla with the techniques
of psychological operations, which maximizes the social-psychological
effect of a guerrilla movement, converting the guerrilla into
a propagandist, in addition to being a co mbatant. The nature
of the environment in guerrilla warfare does not permit sophisticated
facilities for psychological operations, so that use should be
made of the effective face-to-face persuasion of each guerrilla.
political awareness of the guerrilla, the reason for his struggle,
will be as important as his ability in combat. This political
awareness and motivation will be achieved:
- By improving
the combat potential of the guerrilla by improving his motivation
- By the guerrilla
recognizing himself as a vital tie between the democratic guerrillas
and the people, whose support is essential for the subsistence
- By fostering
the support of the population for the national insurgence through
the support for the guerrillas of the locale, which provides a
psychological basis in the population for politics after the victory
has been achieved.
- By developing
trust in the guerrillas and in the population, for the reconstruction
of a local and national government.
- By promoting
the value of participation by the guerrillas and the people in
the civic affairs
of the insurrection and in the national programs.
- By developing
in each guerrilla the ability of persuasion face-to-face, at the
local level, to win the support of the population, which is essential
for success in guerrilla warfare.
awareness-building and motivation are attained by the use of group
dynamics at the level of small units. The group discussion method
and self-criticism are a general guerrilla training and operations
raise the spirit and increase the unity of thought in small guerrilla
groups and exercise social pressure on the weakest members to
better carry out their mission in training and future combat actions.
These group discussions will give s pecial emphasis to:
a favorable opinion of our movement. Through local and national
make it clear that the Sandinista regime is "foreignizing,"
"imperialistic," and that even though there are some Nicaraguans
government, point out that they are "puppets" of the power of
the Soviets and
Cubans, i.e. of foreign power.
a local focus. Matters of an international nature will be explained
support of local events in the guerrilla warfare.
- The unification
of the nation is our goal. This means that the defeat of the
Sandinista armed forces is our priority. Our insurrectional
movement is a pluralistic political
platform from which we are determined to win freedom, equality,
a better econo my
with work facilities, a higher standard of living, a true democracy
for all Nicaraguans without exception.
to each guerrilla clear understanding about the struggle for
sovereignty against Soviet-Cuban imperialism. Discussion guides
will lead the
guerrillas so that they will see the injustices of the Sandinista
each guerrilla the need for good behavior to win the support
of the population. Discussion guides should convince the guerrillas
that the attitude and opinion of the population play a decisive
role, because victory is impossible without popula r support.
will be in constructive terms that will contribute to the mission
of the movement, and which will provide the guerrillas with
the conviction that they have a constant and positive individual
responsibility in the mission of the group.
The method of instruction will be:
of the guerrilla force into squads for group discussions, including
command and support elements, whenever the tactical situation
permits it. The makeup of the small units should be maintained
when these groups are designated.
of a political cadre in the guerrilla force to each group to
guide the discussion. The squad leader should help the cadre
to foster study and the expression of thoughts. If there are
not enough political cadres for each squad or post, leader s
should guide the discussions, and the available cadres visit
c) It is
appropriate for the cadre (or the leader) to guide the discussion
of a group to cover a number of points and to reach a correct
conclusion. The guerrillas should feel that it was their free
and own decision. The cadre should serve as a private te acher.
The cadre or leader will not act as a lecturer, but will help
the members of the group to study and express their own opinions.
political cadre will at the end of every discussion make a summary
of the principal points, leading them to the correct conclusions.
Any serious difference with the objectives of the movement should
be noted by the cadre and reported to the comanda nte of the
force. If necessary, a combined group meeting will be held and
the team of political cadres will explain and rectify the misunderstanding.
conduct by the political cadres: living, eating and working
with the guerrillas, and if possible, fighting at their side,
sharing their living conditions. All of this will foster understanding
and the spirit of cooperation that will help in the discussion
and exchange of ideas.
out group discussions in towns, and areas of operations whenever
possible with the civilian population, and not limit them to
camps or bases. This is done to emphasize the revolutionary
nature of the struggle and to demonstrate that the guerrilla
s identified with the objectives of the people move about within
projects himself toward the people, as the political cadre does
toward the guerrilla, and they should live, eat and work together
to realize a unity of revolutionary thought.
for guerrilla and political-cadre group discussions are:
discussion groups at the post or squad level. A cadre cannot
be sure of the comprehension and acceptance of the concepts
and conclusions by guerrillas in large groups. In a group of
the size of a squad of 10 men, the judgement and control of
the situation is greater. In this way, all students will participate
in an exchange among them; the political leader, the group leader,
and also the political cadre. Special attention will be given
to the individual ability to discuss the objectives of th e
insurrectional struggle. Whenever a guerrilla expresses his
opinion, he will be interested in listening to the opinions
of others, leading as a result to the unity of thought.
the different points of view and reach an opinion or common
conclusion. This is the most difficult task of a political guerrilla
cadre. After the group discussions of the democratic objectives
of the movement, the chief of the team of politica l cadres
of the guerrilla force should combine the conclusions of individual
groups in a general summary. At a meeting with all the discussion
groups, the cadre shall provide the principal points, and the
guerrillas will have the opportunity to clarify or modify their
points of view. To carry this out, the conclusions will be summarized
in the form of slogans, wherever possible.
- Face with
honesty the national and local problems of our struggle. THe
political cadres should always be prepared to discuss solutions
to the problems observed by the guerrillas. During the discussions,
the guerrillas should be guided by the followin g three principles:
of thoughts on the objectives of the democratic struggle.
desired is a guerrilla who in a persuasive manner can justify
all of his acts whenever he is in contact with any member of the
town/people, and especially with himself and with his guerrilla
companions by facing the vicissitudes of guerrilla wa rfare.
that every guerrilla will come to have effective face-to-face
persuasion as a combatant-propagandist in his contact with the
people, to the point of giving 5-10 logical reasons why, e.g.
a peasant should give him a piece of cloth, or a needle a nd thread
to mend his clothes. When behaves in this manner, no type of propaganda
of the enemy will be able to make a "terrorist" of him in the
eyes of the people.
hunger, cold, fatigue and insecurity in the existence of the guerrilla
acquire meaning in the cause of the struggle due to the constant
the guerrilla units gives greater motivation, in addition to reducing
distractions, and increases the spirit of cooperation of small
units, relating the physical environment to the psychological
one. The squad chief shall establish the regular c amping procedure.
Once thy have divested themselves of their packs, the chief will
choose the appropriate ground for camping. He should select land
that predominates over the zone with two or three escape routes.
He will choose among his men and give them responsibilities such
- Clean the
adequate drainage in case of rain. Also build some trenches
or holes for marksmen in case of emergency. In addition, he
will build a stove, which will be done by making some small
trenches and placing three rocks in place; in case the stove
is built on a pedestal, it will be filled with clay and rocks.
- Build a
windbreaking wall, which will be covered on the sides and on
the top with branches and leaves of the same vegetation of the
zones. This will serve for camouflaging and protecting it from
aerial visibility or from enemy patrols around.
a latrine and a hole where waste and garbage will be buried,
which should be covered over at the time of abandoning the camp.
- Once the
camp has been set up, it is recommended that a watchman be positioned
in the places of access at a prudent distance, where the shout
of alarm can be heard. In the same moment the password will
be established, which should be changed every 24 hours. The
commander should establish ahead of time an alternate meeting
point, in case of having to abandon the camp in a hurried manner,
and they will be able to meet in the other already established
point, and they should warn the patrol that if at a p articular
time they cannot meet at the established point, the should have
a third meeting point.
contribute to the motivation of the guerrilla and improve the
spirit of cooperation in the unit. The danger, sense of insecurity,
anxiety and daily concern in the life of a guerrilla require tangible
evidence of belonging in an order for him to keep up his spirit
to the good physical conditions in which the guerrilla should
find himself, good psychological conditions are necessary, for
which group discussions and becoming a self=critic are recommended,
which will greatly benefit the spirit and morale o f the same.
camp with the effort and cooperation of everyone strengthens the
spirit of the group. The guerrilla will be inclined then towards
the unity of thought in democratic objectives.
with the People
to ensure popular support, essential for the good development
of guerrilla warfare, the leaders should induce a positive interaction
between the civilians and the guerrillas, through the principle
of "live, eat , and work with the people," and ma intain control
of their activities. In group discussions, the leaders and political
cadres should give emphasis to positively identifying themselves
with the people.
It is not
recommendable to speak of military tactical plans in discussions
with civilians. The Communist foe should be pointed out as the
number one enemy of the people, and as a secondary threat against
our guerrilla forces.
there is a chance, groups of members should be chosen who have
a high political awareness and high disciplinary conduct in the
work to be carried out, in order to be sent to the populous areas
in order to direct the armed propaganda, where they s hould persuade
the people through dialogue in face-to-face confrontations, where
these principles should be followed:
- Respect for
human rights and others' property.
- Helping the
people in community work.
the people from Communist aggressions.
the people environmental hygiene, to read, etc., in order to
win their trust, which
will lead to a better democratic ideological preparation.
will foster the sympathy of the peasants for our movement, and
they will immediately become one of us, through logistical support,
coverage and intelligence information on the enemy or participation
in combat. The guerrillas should be persua sive through the
word and not dictatorial with weapons. If they behave in this
way, the people will feel respected, will be more inclined to
accept our message and will consolidate into popular support.
place in which tactical guerrilla operations are carried out
in populous areas, the
squad should undertake psychological actions parallel to these,
and should proceed, accompany and consolidate the common objective
and explain to all the people abo ut our struggle, explaining
that our presence is to give peace, liberty and democracy to
all Nicaraguans without exception, and explaining that out struggle
is not against the nationals but rather against Russian imperialism.
This will serve to ensure gre ater Psychological achievements
which will increase the operations of the future.
of the environment in guerrilla warfare does not permit sophisticated
facilities for psychological operations, and the face-to-face
persuasion of the guerrilla combatant-propagandists with the
people is an effective and available tool which we should use
as much as possible during the process of the struggle.
a misunderstanding exists on "armed propaganda," that this tactic
is a compulsion of the people with arms. In reality, it does not
include compulsion, but the guerrilla should know well the principles
and methods of this tactic. The objective o f this section is
to give the guerrilla student an understanding of the armed propaganda
that should be used, and that will be able to be applied in guerrilla
Identification with the People
includes all acts carried out by an armed force, whose results
improve the attitude of the people toward this force, and it does
not include forced indoctrination. This is carried out by a close
identification with the people on any occasion. For example:
- Putting aside
weapons and working side by side with the peasants in the countryside:
building, fishing, repairing roofs, transporting water, etc.
- When working
with the people, the guerrillas can use slogans such as "many
hands doing small things, but doing them together."
in the tasks of the people, they can establish a strong tie between
the guerrillas and at the same time a popular support for our
movement is generated.
- During the
patrols and other operations around or in the midst of villages,
should be respectful and courteous with the people. In addition
he should move with care
and always be well prepared to fight, if necessary. But he should
not a lways see all the people as enemies, with suspicions or
hostility. Even in war, it is possible to smile, laugh
or greet people. Truly, the cause of our revolutionary base, the
reason why we are
struggling, is our people. We must be respectful to them on a
ll occasions that present themselves.
and situations wherever possible, e.g. when they are resting
during the march,
the guerrillas can explain the operation of weapons to the youths
and young men. They can show them an unloaded rifle so that
they will learn to load it and unload it ; their use, and aiming
at imaginary targets they are potential recruits for our forces.
should always be prepared with simple slogans in order to explain
people, whether in an intentional form or by chance, the reason
for the weapons.
- "The weapons
will be for winning freedom; the are for you."
- "With weapons
we can impose demands such as hospitals, schools, better roads,
social services for the people, for you."
- "Our weapons
are, in truth, the weapons of the people, yours."
- "With weapons
we can change the Sandino-Communist regime and return to the people
true democracy so that we will all have economic opportunities."
this should be designed to create an identification of the people
with the weapons and the guerrillas who carry them. Finally,
we should make the people feel that we are thinking of them
and that the weapons are the people's, in order to help them
and protect them from a Communist, totalitarian, imperialist
regime, indifferent to the needs of the population.
Implicit and Explicit Terror
armed force always involves implicit terror because the population,
without saying it aloud, feels terror that the weapons may be
used against them. However, if the terror does not become explicit,
positive results can be expected.
In a revolution,
the individual lives under a constant threat of physical damage.
If the government police cannot put an end to the guerrilla
activities, the population will lose confidence in the government,
which has the inherent mission of guaranteeing the safety of
citizens. However, the guerrillas should be careful not to become
an explicit terror, because this would result in a loss of popular
words of a leader of the Huk guerrilla movement of the Philippine
Islands: "The population is always impressed by weapons, not
by the terror that they cause, but rather
by a sensation of strength/force. We must appear before the
people, giving them the
message of the struggle." This is, then, in a few words, the
essence of armed propaganda.
guerrilla force can occupy an entire town or small city that
is neutral or relatively passive in the conflict. In order to
conduct the armed propaganda in an effective manner, the following
should be carried out simultaneously:
- Destroy the
military or police installations and remove the survivors to a
- Cut all the
outside lines of communications: cables, radio, messengers.
- Set up ambushes
in order to delay the reinforcements in all the possible entry
- Kidnap all
officials or agents of the Sandinista government and replace them
places" with military or civilian persons of trust to our movement;
in addition, carry out the following:
a public tribunal that depends on the guerrillas, and cover the
town or city in
order to gather the population for this event.
- Shame, ridicule
and humiliate the "personal symbols" of the government of repression
the presence of the people and foster popular participation through
guerrillas within the multitude, shouting slogans and jeers.
- Reduce the
influence of individuals in tune with the regime, pointing out
and taking them out of the town, without damaging them publicly.
- Mix the guerrillas
within the population and show very good conduct by all members
of the column, practicing the following:
- Any article
taken will be paid for with cash.
- The hospitality
offered by the people will be accepted and this opportunity
will be exploited in order to carry out face-to-face persuasion
about the struggle.
visits should be made to the prominent persons and those with
the place, such as doctors, priests, teachers, etc.
- The guerrillas
should instruct the population that with the end of the operative,
the Sandinista repressive forces interrogate them, they may reveal
the military operation carried out. For example, the type of weapons
they u se, ho many
men arrived, from what direction they came and in what direction
they left, in short, EVERYTHING.
- In addition,
indicate to the population that at meetings or in private discussion
they can give the names of the Sandinista informants, who will
be removed together with the other
officials of the government of repression.
- When a meeting
is held, conclude it with a speech by one of the leaders of guerrilla
political cadres (the most dynamic), which includes explicit references
that the "enemies of the people"_the officials or Sandinista
agents_must not be mistreated in spite of their criminal acts,
although the guerrilla force may have suffered casualties, and
that this is done due to the generosity of the Christian gu
declaration of gratitude for the "hospitality" of the population,
as well as let them know that the risks that they will run when
the Sandinistas return are greatly appreciated.
that the Sandinista regime, although it exploits the people
with taxes, control of money, grains and all aspects of public
life through associations, which they are forced to become part
of, will not be able to resist the attacks of our guerrilla
forces. Make the promise to the people that you will return
to ensure that the "leeches" of the Sandinista regime of repression
will not be able to hinder our guerrillas from integrating with
the population. A statement repeated to the population to the
effect that they can reveal everything about this visit of our
commandos, because we are not afraid of anything or anyone,
neither the Soviets nor the Cubans. Emphasize that we are Nicaraguans,
that we are fighting for the freedom of Nicaragua and to esta
blish a very Nicaraguan government.
Weapons Are The Strength of the People over an Illegal Government
The armed propaganda
in populated areas does not give the impression that weapons are
the power of the guerrillas over the people, but rather that the
weapons are the strength of the people against a regime of repression.
Whenever it is necessary to use a rmed force in an occupation
or visit to a town or village, guerrillas should emphasize making
sure that they:
- Explain to
the population that in the first place this is being done to protect
them, the people, and not themselves.
- Admit frankly
and publicly that this is an "act of the democratic guerrilla
movement, "with appropriate explanations.
- This action,
although it is not desirable, is necessary because the final objective
of the insurrection is a free and democratic society, where acts
of force are not necessary.
- The force
of weapons is a necessity caused by the oppressive system, and
will cease to
exist when the "forces of justice" of our movement assume control.
If, for example, it
should be necessary for one of the advanced posts to have to fire
on a citizen who was
trying to leave the town or city in which the guerrillas are carrying
out armed propaganda or political proselytism, the following is
- Explain that
if that citizen had managed to escape, he would have alerted the
enemy that is near the town or city, and they could carry out
acts of reprisal such as rapes, pillage, destruction, captures,
etc., it this way terrorizing the inhabitants o f the place for
given attention and hospitalities to the guerrillas of the town.
- If a guerrilla
fires at an individual, make the town see that he was an enemy
of the people,
and that they shot him because the guerrilla recognized as their
first duty the protection of citizens.
- The command
tried to detain the informant without firing because he, like
all Christian guerrillas, espouses nonviolence. Firing at the
Sandinista informant, although it is against
his own will, was necessary to prevent the repression of the Sandinist
a government against innocent people.
- Make the
population see that it was the repressive system of the regime
that was the
cause of this situation, what really killed the informer, and
that the weapon fired was one recovered in combat against the
- Make the
population see that if the Sandinista regime had ended the repression,
corruption backed by foreign powers, etc., the freedom commandos
would not have had to brandish arms against brother Nicaraguans,
which goes against our Christian sent iments.
If the informant hadn't tried to escape he would be enjoying life
together with the rest of the population, because not have tried
to inform the enemy. This death would have been avoided
if justice and freedom existed in Nicaragua, which is exactl y
the objective of the democratic guerrilla.
Use of Violence for Propagandistic Effects
It is possible
to neutralize carefully selected and planned targets, such as
mesta judges, police and State Security officials, CDS chiefs,
etc. For psychological
purposes it is necessary to gather together the population affected,
so that t hey will be present, take part in the act, and formulate
accusations against the oppressor.
or person should be chosen on the basis of:
- The spontaneous
hostility that the majority of the population feels toward the
- Use rejection
or potential hatred by the majority of the population affected
toward the target, stirring up the population and making them
see all the negative and hostile actions of the individual against
- If the majority
of the people give their support or backing to the target or subject,
do not try to change these sentiments through provocation.
difficulty of controlling the person who will replace the target.
who will replace the target should be chosen carefully, based
- Degree of
violence necessary to carry out the change.
- Degree of
violence acceptable to the population affected.
- Degree of
predictable reprisal by the enemy on the population affected or
other individuals in the area of the target.
to replace the individual should be followed by:
explanation within the population affected of the reason why it
was necessary for
the good of the people.
- Explain that
Sandinista retaliation is unjust, indiscriminate, and above all,
a justification for
the execution of this mission.
test the reaction of the people toward the mission, as well as
control this reaction, making sure that the populations reaction
is beneficial towards the Freedom Commandos.
includes all acts executed and the impact achieved by an armed
force, which as a result produces positive attitudes in the population
toward this force, and it does not include forced indoctrination.
However, armed propaganda is the most effective available instrument
of a guerrilla force.
with the very reality of their roots, in a psychological operation
campaign in guerrilla warfare, the comandantes will be able to
obtain maximum psychological results from an Armed Propaganda
program. This section is to inform the guerrilla stu dent as to
what Armed Propaganda Teams are in the environment of guerrilla
Political Awareness and Armed Propaganda
Propaganda Teams combine political awareness-building with armed
propaganda, which will be carried out by carefully selected guerrillas
(preferably with experience in combat), for personal persuasion
within the population.
of the staff is more important than the training, because we cannot
train guerrilla cadres just to show the sensations of ardor and
fervor, which are essential for person-to-person persuasion. More
important is the training of persons who ar e intellectually agile
Propaganda Team includes from 6 to 10 members; this number or
a smaller number is ideal, since there is more camaraderie, solidarity
and group spirit. The themes to deal with are assimilated more
rapidly and the members react more rapidly to unfo reseen situations.
In addition to the combination as armed propagandist-combatant
each member of the team should be well prepared to carry out permanent
person-to-person communication, face-to-face. The leader of the
group should be the commando who is th e most highly motivated
politically and the most effective in face-to-face persuasion.
The position, hierarchy or range will not be decisive for carrying
out that function, but rather who is best qualified for communication
with the people.
of basic recruitment for guerrilla cadres will be the same social
groups of Nicaraguans to whom the psychological campaign is directed,
such as peasants, students, professionals, housewives, etc. The
campesinos (peasants) should be made to see that they do not have
lands; the workers that the State is putting an end to factories
and industries; the doctors, that they are being replaced by Cuban
paramedics, and that as doctors they cannot practice their profession
due to lack of medicines. A req uirement for recruiting them will
be their ability to express themselves in public.
of the personnel is more important than the training. The political
awareness-building and the individual capabilities of persuasion
will be shown in the group discussions for motivation of the guerrilla
as a propagandist-combatant chosen as cadres to organize them
in teams, that is, those who have the greatest capacity for this
of guerrillas for Armed Propaganda Teams emphasizes the method
and not the content. A two-week training period is sufficient
if the recruitment is done in the form indicated. If a mistaken
process of recruitment has been followed, however goo the training
provided, the individual chosen will not yield a very good result.
should be intensive for 14 days, through team discussions, alternating
the person who leads the discussion among the members of the group.
to be dealt with will be the same, each day a different theme
being presented, for a varied practice.
should refer to the conditions of the place and the meaning that
they have for the inhabitants of the locality, such as talking
of crops, fertilizers, seeds, irrigation of crops, etc. They can
also include the following topics:
- Sawed wood,
carpenters' tools for houses or other buildings.
- Boats, roads,
horses, oxen for transportation, fishing, agriculture.
that they may have in the place with residents, offices of the
regime, imposed visitors, etc.
- Force labor,
service in the militia.
- Forced membership
in Sandinista groups, such as women's clubs, youth associations,
workers' groups, etc.
and prices of consumer articles and of basic needs in the grocery
stores and shops of the place.
of education in the public schools.
- Anxiety of
the people over the presence of Cuban teachers in the schools
and the intrusion
of politics, i.e. using them for political ends and not educational
ones as should be.
over the lack of freedom of worship, and persecution, of which
priests are victims; and over the participation of priests such
as Escoto and Cardenal in the Sandinista government, against the
explicit orders of his Holiness, the Pope.
of the team can develop other themes.
groups for the Armed Propaganda Teams are not the persons with
sophisticated political knowledge, but rather those whose opinion
are formed from what they see and hear. The cadres should use
persuasion to carry out their mission. Some of the pe rsuasive
methods that they can use are the following:
Group/Exterior Group. It is a principle of psychology that we
humans have the tendency to form personal associations from
"we" and "the others," or "we" and "they", "friends" and "enemies,"
"fellow countrymen" and "foreigners," "mestizos" and "gringos."
Propaganda Team can use this principle in its activities, so
that it is obvious
that the "exterior" groups ("false" groups) are those of the
Sandinista regime, and that the "interior" groups ("true" groups)
that fight for the people are the Freedom Commandos.
inculcate this in the people in a subtle manner so that these
feelings seem to be born of themselves, spontaneously.
is much easier that "for." It is a principle of political science
that it is easier to persuade the people to vote against something
or someone than to persuade them to vote
in favor of something or someone. Although currently the regime
has no t given the
Nicaraguan people the opportunity to vote, it is known that
the people will vote in opposition, so that the Armed Propaganda
Teams can use this principle in favor of our insurrectional
struggle. They should ensure that this campaign is directe d
specifically against the government or its sympathizers, since
the people should have specific targets for their frustrations.
Groups and Secondary Groups. Another principle of sociology
is that we humans forge or change our opinions from two sources:
primarily, through our association with our family, comrades,
or intimate friends; and secondarily, through distant associ
ations such as acquaintances in churches, clubs or committees,
labor unions or governmental organizations. The Armed Propaganda
Team cadres should join the first groups in order to persuade
them to follow the policies of our movement, because it is from
this type of group that the opinions or changes of opinion come.
of Persuasion in Talks or Speeches:
Be Simple and
Concise. You should avoid the use of difficult words or expressions
prefer popular words and expressions, i.e. the language of the
people. In dealing with a
person you should make use of concise language, avoiding complicated
words. It is
important to remember that we use oratory to make our people understand
for our struggle, and not to show off our knowledge.
and Realistic Examples. Avoid abstract concepts, such as are
universities in the advanced years, and in place of them, give
concrete examples such as children playing, horses galloping,
birds in flight, etc.
to Communicate. Communication, in addition to being verbal,
can be through gestures, such as using our hands expressively,
back movements, facial expressions, focusing of our look and
other aspects of "body language," projecting the individual
personality in the message. Use the Appropriate Tone of Voice.
If, on addressing the people, you talk about happiness, a happy
tone should be used. If you talk of something sad, the
tone of the voice should be one of sadness; on talking of a
heroic or brave act, the voice should be animated, etc. Above
All, Be Natural, Imitation of others should be avoided, since
the people, especially simple people, easily distinguish a fake.
The individual personality should be projected when addressing
and Ears" Within the Population
of information for intelligence that will be generated by the
deployment of the Armed Propaganda Teams will allow us to cover
a large area with out commandos, who will become the eyes and
ears of our movement within the population:
reports of an Armed Propaganda Team will provide us with exact
details on the enemy activities.
information obtained by the Armed Propaganda Teams should be
reported to the chiefs. However, it is necessary to emphasize
that the first mission of the Armed Propaganda Teams is to carry
out psychological operations, not to obtain data f or intelligence.
report will be made through the outside contact of the Armed
Propaganda Team, in order not to compromise the population.
Propaganda cadres are able to do what others in a guerrilla
campaign cannot do: determine personally the development or
deterioration of the popular support and the
sympathy or hostility that the people feel toward our movement.
Propaganda Team program, in addition to being very effective
psychologically, increases the guerrilla capacity in obtaining
and using information.
the Armed Propaganda cadre will report to his superior the reaction
of the people to the radio broadcasts, the insurrectional flyers,
or any other means of propaganda of ours. Expressions or gestures
of the eyes, or face, the tone and strength of the voice, and
the use of the appropriate words greatly affect the face-to-face
persuasion of the people.
intelligence reports supplied by the Armed Propaganda Teams,
will be able to have exact knowledge of the popular support,
which they will make use of in their operations.
Tactics, Maximum Flexibility
tactics will have the greatest flexibility within a general plan,
permitting a continuous and immediate adjustment of the message,
and ensuring that an impact is
caused on the indicated target group at the moment in which it
is the most susceptible.
an Armed Propaganda Equipment program should cover the majority
possible all of the operational area. The communities in which
this propaganda is carried
out should not necessarily form political units with an official
nature. A complete
understanding of their structure or organization is not necessary
because the cadres will
work by applying socio-political action and not academic theory.
populations of the Armed Propaganda Teams will be chosen for
being part of the operational area, and not for their size or
amount of land.
- The objective
should be the people and not the territorial area.
- In this respect,
each work team will be able to cover some six towns approximately,
order to develop popular support for our movement.
- The Team
should always move in a covert manner within the towns of their
- They should
vary their route radically, but not their itinerary,. This is
so that the inhabitants who are cooperating will be dependent
on their itinerary, i.e., the hour in which they can frequently
contact them to give them the information.
- The danger
of betrayal or an ambush can be neutralized by varying the itinerary
using different routes, as well as arriving or leaving without
the surprise factor is used, vigilance should be kept in order
to detect the possible presence of hostile elements.
- No more than
three consecutive days should be spent in a town.
- The limit
of three days has obvious tactical advantages, but it also has
effect on the people, on seeing the team as a source of current
and up-to-date information. Also, it can overexpose the target
audience and cause a negative reaction.
- Basic tactical
precautions should be taken. This is necessary for greater effectiveness,
as was indicated in dealing with the subject of "Armed Propaganda,"
and when it is carried
out discreetly, it increases the respect of the people for the
team and increases their credibility.
- The basic
procedures are: covert elements that carry out vigilance before
and after the departure and in intervals. There should be two
at least, and they should meet at a predetermined point upon a
signal, or in view of any hostile action.
- The team's
goal is to motivate the entire population of a place, but to constantly
aware that defined target groups exist within this general configuration
of the public.
meetings may be held in the population, the cadres should recognize
and keep in contact with the target groups, mixing with them before,
during and after the meeting. The method for holding this type
of meeting was included in the topic "Arme d Propaganda," and
will be covered in greater detail under the title "Control of
Mass Meetings and Demonstrations."
- The basic
focus of the Armed Propaganda cadres should be on the residents
of the town,where their knowledge as formers of opinion can be
- In the first
visits of identification with the inhabitants, the guerrilla cadres
will be courteous
and humble. They can work in the fields or in any other form in
which their abilities can contribute to the improvement of the
living style of the inhab itants of the place, winning their trust
and talking with them; helping to repair the fences of their cattle;
the cleaning of the same, collaborating in the vaccination of
their animals; teaching them to read, i.e., closely together in
all the tasks of th e peasant or the community.
- In his free
time, our guerrilla should mix in with the community groups and
participate with them in pastoral activities, parties, birthdays,
and even in wakes or burials of the members of said community;
he will try to converse with both adults and a dolescents. |He
will try to penetrate to the heart of the family, in order to
win the acceptance and trust of all of the residents of that sector.
Propaganda Team cadres will give ideological training, mixing
these instructions with folkloric songs, and at the same time
he will tell stories that have some attraction,
making an effort to make them refer to heroic acts of our ancestors.
He w ill also try to tell stories of heroism of our combatants
in the present struggle so that listeners try to imitate them.
It is important
to let them know that there are other countries in the world
and democracy cause those governing to be concerned over the
well-being of their people, so that the children have medical
care and free education; where also they are concerned that
everyone have work and food, and all freedoms such as those
of religion, association and expression; where the greatest
objective of the government is to keep its people happy.
should not make mention of their political ideology during the
first phase of identification with the people, and they should
orient their talks to things that are pleasing to the peasants
or the listeners, trying to be as simple as possible in order
to be understood.
objectives for identification with the people are the following:
- To establish
tight relations through identification with the people, through
their very customs.
- To determine
the basic needs and desires of the different target groups.
- To discover
the weaknesses of the governmental control.
- Little by
little, to sow the seed of democratic revolution, in order to
change the vices of the regime towards a new order of justice
and collective well-being.
motivation of the target groups, by the Armed Propaganda Teams,
the cadre should apply themes of "true groups and themes of
"false" groups. The true group will correspond to the target
group and the false one to the Sandinista regime.
economic interest groups, such as small businessmen and farmers,
it should be emphasized that their potential progress is "limited"
by the Sandinista government, that resources are scarcer and
scarcer, the earnings/profits minimal, taxes high, etc .
This can be applied to entrepreneurs of transportation and others.
elements ambitious for power and social positions, it will be
emphasized that they
will never be able to belong to the governmental social class,
since they are hermetic in
their circle of command. Example, the nine Sandinista leaders
do not allow other persons
to participate in the government, and they hinder the development
of the economic and
social potential of those like him, who have desires of overcoming
this, which is unjust and arbitrary.
and intellectual criticisms. They should be directed at the
professionals, professors, teachers, priests, missionaries,
students and others. Make them see that their writings, commentaries
or conversations are censored, which does not make it possi
ble to correct these problems.
needs and frustrations of the target groups have been determined,
of the people to the "false" groups will become more direct,
against the current regime
and its system of repression. The people will be made to see
that once this system or structure has been eliminated, the
cause of their frustration s would be eliminated and they would
be able to fulfill their desires. It should be shown to the
population that supporting the insurrection is really supporting
their own desires, sinc e the democratic movement is aimed at
the elimination of these specific problems.
As a general
rule, the Armed Propaganda teams should avoid participating
in combat. However, if this is not possible, they should react
as a guerrilla unit with tactics of "hit and run," causing the
enemy the greatest amount of casualties with aggressive assault
fire, recovering enemy weapons and withdrawing rapidly.
to the rule to avoid combat will be when in the town they are
challenged by hostile actions, whether by an individual or whether
by a number of men of an enemy team.
of one or two men can be overcome by eliminating the enemy in
a rapid and effective manner. This is the most common danger.
enemy is equal in the number of its forces, there should be
an immediate retreat, and then the enemy should be ambushed
or eliminated by means of sharp-shooters.
of the cases, the Armed Propaganda Team cadres should not turn
the town into a battleground. Generally, our guerrilla will
be better armed, so that they will obtain greater respect from
the population if they carry out appropriate maneuvers instead
of endangering their lives, or even destroying their houses
in an encounter with the enemy within the town.
Comprehensive Team Program - Mobile Infrastructure
operations through the Armed Propaganda Teams include the infiltration
of key guerrilla communicators (i.e., Armed Propaganda Team cadres)
into the population of the country, instead of sending messages
to them through outside sources, thus creating our "mobile infrastructure."
infrastructure" is a cadre of our Armed Propaganda Team moving
about, i.e., keeping in touch with six or more populations,
from which his source of information will
come; and at the same time it will serve so that at the appropriate
time they wi ll become integrated in the complete guerrilla
way, an Armed Propaganda Team program in the operational area
builds for our comandantes in the countryside constant source
of data gathering (infrastructure) in all the area. It is also
a means for developing or increasing popular support, for re
cruiting new members and for obtaining provisions.
an Armed Propaganda Team program allows the expansion of the
guerrilla movement, since they can penetrate areas that are
not under the control of the combat
units. In this way, through an exact evaluation of the combat
units they will be able to plan their operations more precisely,
since they will have certain knowledge of the existing conditions.
will remember that this type of operation is similar to the
Fifth Column, which was used in the first part of the Second
World War, and which through infiltration and subversion tactics
allowed the Germans to penetrate the target countries before
the invasions. They managed to enter Poland, Belgium, Holland
and France in a month, and Norway in a week. The effectiveness
of this tactic has been clearly demonstrated in several wars
and can be used effectively by the Freedom Commandos.
of the Armed Propaganda Teams run some risks, but no more than
any other guerrilla activity. However, the Armed Propaganda
Teams are essential for the success of the struggle.
In the same
way that the explorers are the "eyes and "ears" of a patrol,
or of a column on
the march, the Armed Propaganda Teams are also the source of
"antennas" of our movement, because they find and exploit the
in the target society, making possible a successful operation.
AND CONTROL OF FRONT ORGANIZATIONS
and control of front organizations (or "facade" organizations)
is an essential process in the guerrilla effort to carry out the
insurrection. That is, in truth, an aspect of urban guerrilla
warfare, but it should advance parallel to the ca mpaign in the
rural area. This section has as its objective to give the guerrilla
student an understanding of the development and control of front
organizations in guerrilla warfare.
recruitment to the movement, if it is involuntary, will be carried
out through several "private" consultations with a cadre (without
his knowing that he is talking to a member of ours). Then, the
recruit will be informed that he or she is alre ady inside the
movement, and he will be exposed to the police of the regime if
he or she does not cooperate.
guerrillas carry out missions of armed propaganda and a program
of regular visits to the towns by the Armed Propaganda Teams,
these contacts will provide the commandos with the names and places
of persons who can be recruited. The recruitment, wh ich will
be voluntary, is done through visits by guerrilla leaders or political
After a chain
of voluntary recruitments has been developed, and the trustworthiness
of the recruits has been established by their carrying out small
missions, they will be instructed about increasing/widening the
chain by recruiting in specific target gro ups, in accordance
with the following procedure:
their acquaintances or through observation of the target groups
- political parties, workers' unions, youth groups, agrarian associations,
etc. - finding out the personal habits, preferences and biases,
as well as the weaknesses of the "recruit able" individuals.
Make an approach
through an acquaintance, and if possible, develop a friendship,
attracting him through his preferences or weaknesses: it might
be inviting him for lunch in the restaurant of his choice or having
a drink in his favorite cantina or an invit ation to dinner in
the place he prefers.
should follow one of the following guidelines:
- If in an
informal conversation the target seems susceptible to voluntary
on his beliefs and personal values, etc., the political cadre
assigned to carry out the recruitments will be notified of this.
The original contact will indicat e to the cadre assigned,
in detail, all he knows of the prospective recruit, and the style
of persuasion to be used, introducing the two.
- If the target
does not seem to be susceptible to voluntary recruitment, meetings
can be arranged which seem casual with the guerrilla leaders or
with the political cadres (unknown
by the target until that moment). The meetings will be held so
that "ot her persons" know
that the target is attending them, whether they see him arrive
at a particular house, seated
at the table in a particular bar or even seated on a park bench.
The target, then, is faced with the fact of his participation
in the insurrecti onal struggle and it will be indicated to him
also that if he fails to cooperate or to carry out future orders,
he will be subjected to reprisals by
the police or soldiers of the regime.
- The notification
of the police, denouncing a target who does not want to join the
can be carried out easily, when it becomes necessary, through
a letter with false statements of citizens who are not implicated
in the movement. Care should be taken that the person
who recruited him covertly is not discovered.
- With the
carrying out of clandestine missions for the movement, the involvement
and handing over of every recruit is done gradually on a wider
and wider scale, and confidence increases. This should be a gradual
process, in order to prevent confessions from fearful individuals
who have been assigned very difficult or dangerous missions too
- Using this
recruitment technique, our guerrillas will be able to successfully
infiltrate any key target group in the regime, in order to improve
the internal control of the enemy structure.
Citizens, Subjective Internal Control
citizens, such as doctors, lawyers, businessmen, landholders,
minor state officials, etc., will be recruited to the movement
and used for subjective internal control of groups and associations
to which they belong or may belong.
recruitment/involvement has been brought about, and has progressed
to the point that allows that specific instructions be given
to internal cadres to begin to influence their groups, instructions
will be given to them to carry out the following:
- The process
is simple and only requires a basic knowledge of the Socrates
dialectic: that is the knowledge that is inherent to another person
or the established position of a group, some theme, some word
or some thought related to the objective of per suasion of the
person in charge of our recruitment.
- The cadre
then must emphasize this theme, word or thought in the discussions
of the target group, through a casual commentary, which improves
the focus of other
members of the group in relation to this. Specific examples are:
interest groups are motivated by profit and generally feel that
hinders the use of their capability in this effort in some way,
taxes, import-export tariffs, transportation costs, etc. The cadre
in charge will increase this feeling of frustration in later conversations.
aspirants, particularly if the are not successful, feel that the
system discriminates against them unfairly, limiting their capabilities,
because the Sandinista regime does
not allow elections. The cadres should focus political discussions
t owards this frustration.
social critics (such as professors, teachers, priests, missionaries,
generally feel that the government ignores their valid criticism
or censors their comments unjustly, especially in a situation
of revolution. This can easily be shown by the guerrilla
cadre at meetings and discussions, to be an injustice of the
the target groups, after they have established frustrations,
the hostility towards the obstacles to their aspirations will
gradually become transferred to the current regime and its system
cadre moving among the target groups should always maintain
a low profile, so that the development of hostile feelings towards
the false Sandinista regime seems to come spontaneously from
the members of the group and not from suggestions of the cadres.
This is internal subjective control. Antigovernmental hostility
should be generalized, and not necessarily in our favor. If
a group develops a feeling in our favor, it can be utilized.
But the main objective is to precondition the target groups
for the fusion in mass organizations later in t he operation,
when other activities have been successfully undertaken.
of Cells for Security
of our movement should organize into cells of three persons, only
one of them maintaining outside contact.
of three persons is the basic element of the movement, with
frequent meetings to receive orders and pass information to
the cell leader. These meetings are also very
important for mutually reinforcing the members of the cell,
as well as their mor ale. They should exercise criticism of
themselves on the realization or failures in carrying out individual
subjective control missions.
of the three-member cell provides a security net for reciprocal
communication, each member having contact with only an operational
cell. The members
will not reveal at the cell coordination meetings the identity
of their contact in an ope rational cell; they will reveal only
the nature of the activity in which the cell is involved, e.g.,
political party work, medical association work, etc.
no hierarchy in cells outside of an element of coordination,
who is the leader, who
will have direct but covert contact with our guerrilla comandante
in the zone or operational area. The previous diagram does not
indicate which new operational ce ll is the limit, but it indicates
that for every three operational cells, we need a coordination
in a "Cover" Organization
of organizations recognized by the Sandinista government, such
as associations and other groups, through internal subjective
control, occurs in the final stages of the operation, in a tight
connection with mass meetings.
guerrilla armed action has expanded sufficiently, armed propaganda
will be carried out on a large scale: propaganda teams will
have clearly developed open support of the institutions; the
enemy system of target groups will be well infilt rated and
preconditioned. At the point at which mass meetings are held,
the internal cadres should begin discussions for the "fusion"
of forces into an organization - this organization will be a
"cover" source of our movement.
target group will be aware that other groups are developing
greater hostility to the government., the police and the traditional
legal bases of authority. The guerrilla cadres in
that group - for example, teachers - will cultivate this awareness
-building, making comments such as "So-and-so, who is a farmer,
said that the members of his cooperative believe that
the new economic policy is absurd, poorly planned and unfair
to the farmers."
awareness-building is increased, in the sense that other groups
feel hostility towards the regime, the group discussions are
held openly and our movement will be able to receive reports
that the majority of their operatives are united in common,
greater hostility against the regime. This will be developed
and the order to fuse/join will come about. The fusion into
a "cover" front is carried out thusly:
cadres of our movement will meet with people such as presidents,
others, at organized meetings chaired by the group chief of our
movement. Two or three escorts can assist the guerrilla cadre
if it becomes necessary.
- Publish a
joint communique on this meeting, announcing the creation of the
"cover" front, including names and signatures of the participants,
and names of the organizations that
this communique, mass meetings should be initiated, which should
a goal the destruction of the Sandinista control.
and control of the "cover" organizations in a guerrilla war will
give our movement the ability to create the "whiplash" effect
within the population, when the order for fusion is gives. When
the infiltration and internal subjective control have been developed
parallel with other guerrilla activities, a democratic guerrilla
commander will literally be able
to shake up the Sandinista structure and replace it.
OF MASS CONCENTRATIONS AND MEETINGS
In the last
stages of a guerrilla war, mass concentrations and meetings are
a powerful psychological tool for carrying out the mission. This
section has as its objective giving the guerrilla student training
on techniques for controlling mass concentrati ons and meetings
in guerrilla warfare.
of Guerrilla Cadres
of guerrilla cadres (whether a member of our movement or outside
element) in workers' unions, student groups, peasant organizations,
etc., preconditioning these groups for behavior within the masses,
where they will have to carry proselytism for the instructional
struggle in a clandestine manner.
- Our psychological
war team should prepare in advance a hostile mental attitude among
the target groups so that at the decisive moment they can turn
their furor into violence,
demanding their rights that have been trampled upon by the regime.
- These preconditioning
campaigns must be aimed at the political parties, professional
organizations, students, laborers, the masses of the unemployed,
the ethnic minorities and any other sector of society that is
vulnerable or recruitable; this also includes the popular masses
and sympathizers of our movement.
- The basic
objective of a preconditioning campaign is to create a negative
"image" of the common enemy, e.g.:
the managers of collective government entities as trying to
treat the staff the way "slave foremen" do.
- The police
mistreat the people like the Communist "Gestapo" does.
- The government
officials of National Reconstruction are puppets of Russian-Cuban
- Our psychological
war cadres will create compulsive obsessions of a temporary nature
in places of public concentrations, constantly hammering away
at the themes pointed out or desired, the same as in group gatherings;
in informal conversations expressing discontent;
in addition passing out brochures and flyers, and writ ing editorial
articles both on the radio and in newspapers, focused on the intention
of preparing the mind of the people of the
decisive moment, which will erupt in general violence.
- In order
to facilitate the preconditioning of the masses, we should often
use phrases to
make the people see, such as:
- The taxes
that they pay the government do not benefit the people at all,
but rather are uses
as a form of exploitation in order to enrich those governing.
- Make it plain
to the people that they have become slaves, that they are being
exploited by privileged military and political groups.
- The foreign
advisers and their counseling programs are in reality "interveners"
homeland, who direct the exploitation of the nation in accordance
with the objectives of the Russian and Cuban imperialists, in
order to turn our people into slaves of the hammer and sickle.
of Appropriate Slogans
of the guerrilla warfare classify their slogans in accordance
with the circumstances with the aim of mobilizing the masses in
a wide scale of activities and at the highest emotional level.
mass uprising is being developed, our covert cadres should make
partial demands, initially demanding, e.g. "We want food," "We
want freedom of worship," "We want union freedom" - steps that
will lead us toward the realization of the goals of our movement,
which are: GOD, HOMELAND and DEMOCRACY.
If a lack
of organization and command is noted in the enemy authority,
and the people find themselves in a state of exaltation, advantage
can be taken of this circumstance so that our agitators will
raise the tone of the rallying slogans, taking them to the most
masses are not emotionally exalted, our agitators will continue
with the "partial"
slogans, and the demands will be based on daily needs, chaining
them to the goals of our movement.
of the need to give simple slogans is that few people think
in terms of millions of cordobas, but any citizen, however humble
he may be, understands that a pair of shoes is necessary. The
goals of the movement are of an ideological nature, but our
agitators must realize that food - "bread and butter," "the
tortilla and red beans" - pull along the people, and it should
be understood that this is their main mission.
the mobilization of a specific number of agitators of the guerrilla
organization of the place.
will inevitably attract an equal number of curious persons who
and emotions, as well as those unhappy with the system of government.
The guerrillas will attract sympathizers, discontented citizens
as a consequence of the repress ion of the system.
subunit will be assigned specific tasks and missions that they
out. Our cadres will be mobilized in the largest number possible,
together with persons who have been affected by the Communist
dictatorship, whether their possessi ons have been stolen from
them, they have been incarcerated, or tortured, or suffered
from any other type of aggression against them.
be mobilized toward the areas where the hostile and criminal
elements of the FSLN, CDS and others live, with an effort for
them to be armed with clubs, iron rods, placards and if possible,
small firearms, which they will carry hidden.
professional criminals will be hired to carry out specific selected
will visit the places where the unemployed meet, as well as
the unemployment offices, in order to hire them for unspecified
"jobs." The recruitment of these wage earners is necessary because
a nucleus is created under absolute orders.
cadres will arrange ahead of time the transportation of the
order to take them to meeting places in private or public vehicles,
boats or any other type of transportation.
will be designated to design placards, flags and banners with
or key words, whether they be partial, temporary or of the most
will be designated to prepare flyers, posters, signs and pamphlets
to make the concentration more noticeable. This material will
contain instructions for the participants and will also serve
against the regime.
tasks will be assigned to others, in order to create a "martyr"
for the cause, taking
the demonstrators to a confrontation with the authorities, in
order to bring about uprisings or shootings, which will cause
the death of one or more persons, wh o would become the martyrs,
a situation that should be made use of immediately against the
regime, in order to create greater conflicts.
to Lead an Uprising at Mass Meetings
It can be
carried out by means of a small group of guerrillas infiltrated
within the masses, who will have the mission of agitating, giving
the impression that there are many of them and that they have
popular backing. Using the tactics of a force of 200-300 agitators,
a demonstration can be created in which 10,00-20,00 persons take
of the masses in a demonstration is carried out by means of
sociopolitical objectives. In this action one or several people
of our convert movement should take part, highly trained as
mass agitators, involving innocent persons, in order to bring
about an apparent spontaneous protest demonstration. They will
lead all of the concentration to the
end of it.
Commando. This element stays out of all activity, located so
that they can observe from where they are the development of
the planned events. As a point of observation, they should look
for the tower of a church, a high building, a high tree, the
highest level of the stadium or an auditorium, or any other
Commando. This element will remain within the multitude. Great
importance should be given to the protection of the leaders
of these elements. Some placards or large allusive signs should
be used to designate the Commando Posts and to provide signals
to the subunits.
This element will avoid placing itself in places where fights
or incidents come about after the beginning of the demonstration.
agitators of ours will remain within the multitude. The one
responsible for this mission will assign ahead of time the agitators
to remain near the placard that he will
indicate to them, in order to give protection to the placard
from any contrary element. In that way the commander will know
where our agitators are, and will be able to send orders to
change passwords or slogans, or any other unforeseen thing,
and even eventually to incite violence if he d esires it.
stage, once the key cadres have been dispersed, they should
place themselves in visible places such as by signs, lampposts,
and other places which stand out.
agitators should avoid places of disturbances, once they have
taken care of the beginning of the same.
Posts. These elements will act as bodyguards in movement, forming
a ring of protection for the chief, protecting him from the
police and the army, or helping him to
escape if it should be necessary. They should be highly disciplined
and will react only
upon a verbal order from the chief.
the chief participates in a religious concentration, a funeral
or any other type of
activity in which they have to behave in an organized fashion,
the bodyguards will remain
in the ranks very close to the chief or to the placard or banner
carriers in order to give
them full protection.
in this mission should be guerrilla combatants in civilian clothes,
or hired recruits who are sympathizers in our struggle and who
are against the oppressive regime.
must have a high discipline and will use violence only on the
of the one in charge of them.
They should remain near the leaders, transmitting orders between
inside and outside commandos. They will use communication radios,
telephones, bicycles, motorcycles, cars, or move on foot or
horseback, taking paths or trails to shorten distances. Adolescents
(male and female) are ideal for this mission.
These men should be equipped with weapons (Knives, razors, chains,
clubs, bludgeons) and should march slightly behind the innocent
and gullible participants. They should carry their weapons hidden.
They will enter into action only as "reinforcements"
if the guerrilla agitators are attacked by the police. They
will enter the scene quickly,
violently and by surprise, in order to distract the authorities,
in this way making possible the withdrawal or rapid escape of
the inside commando.
of Banners and Placards. The banners and placards used in demonstrations
or concentrations will express the protests of the population,
but when the concentration
reaches its highest level of euphoria or popular discontent,
our infiltrated persons will make use of the placards against
the regime, which we manage to infiltrate in a hidden fashion,
an don them slogans or key words will be expressed to the benefit
of our cause. The one responsible for this mission will assign
the agitators ahead of time to keep near the
placard of any contrary element.
way, the comandante will know where the agitators are, and will
be able to send orders to change slogans and eventually to incite
violence if he wishes.
of Rallying Cries and Applause. They will be trained with specific
use tried rallying cries. They will be able to use phrase such
as "WE ARE HUNGRY, WE WANT BREAD," and "WE DON'T WANT COMMUNISM."
There work and their technique
for agitating the masses is quite similar to those of the leaders
of applause and slogans at
the high school football or baseball games. The objective is
to become more adept and not just to shout rallying cries.
In a revolutionary
movement of guerrilla warfare, the mass concentrations and protest
demonstrations are the principle essential for the destruction
of the enemy structures.
IN-DEPTH SUPPORT THROUGH
coverage in these sections could leave the student with some doubts.
Therefore, all sections are summarized here, in order to give
a clearer picture of this book.
of the struggle should know that his political mission is as important
as, if not more important than, his tactical mission.
3. Armed Propaganda
in small towns, rural villages, and city residential districts
should give the impression that our weapons are not for exercising
power over the people, but rather that the weapons are for protecting
the people; that they are the power of the people against the
FSLN government of oppression.
4. Armed Propaganda
Teams will combine political awareness building and the ability
to conduct propaganda for ends of personal persuasion, which will
be carried out within the population.
5. Cover ("Facade")
of several organizations and associations recognized by the government,
through internal subjective control, occurs in the final stages
of the operation, in close cooperation with mass meetings.
of Mass Demonstrations
of elements of the struggle with participants in the demonstration
will give the appearance of a spontaneous demonstration, lacking
direction,which will be used by the agitators of the struggle
to control the behavior of the masses.
we see guerrilla warfare only from the point of view of combat
actions. This view is erroneous and extremely dangerous. Combat
actions are not the key to victory in guerrilla warfare but rather
form part of one of the six basic efforts. There is no priority
in any of the efforts, but rather they should progress in a parallel
manner. The emphasis or exclusion of any of these efforts could
bring about serious difficulties, and in the worst of cases, even
failure. The history of revolutionary wars has shown this reality.
of this appendix is to complement the guidelines and recommendations
to the propagandist guerrillas expressed under the topic of "Techniques
of Persuasion in Talks and Speeches" to improve the ability to
organize and express thoughts for those who wish to perfect their
oratorical abilities. After all, oratory is one of the most valuable
resources for exercising leadership. Oratory can be used, then,
as an extraordinary political tool.
1. The Audience
simultaneous communication par excellence, i.e., the orator
and his audience share the same time and space. Therefore, every
speech should be a different experience at "that" moment
or particular situation which the audience is experiencing and
which influences them. So the audience must be considered as "a
state of mind." Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, etc., are
states of mind that we must consider to exist in our audience,
and it is the atmosphere that affects the target public.
The human being is made up of a mind and soul; he acts in accordance
with his thoughts and sentiments and responds to stimuli of ideas
and emotions. In that way there exist only two possible focuses
in any plan, including speeches: the concrete, based on rational
appeals, i.e., to thinking; and the idealized, with emotional
appeals, i.e., to sentiment.
For his part the orator, although he must be sensitive to the
existing mass sentiment, he must at the same time keep his cold
judgment to be able to lead and control effectively the feelings
of an audience. When in the oratorical momentum the antithesis
between heart and brain comes about, judgment should always prevail,
characteristic of a leader.
oratory is one of the various forms of oratory, and it usually
fulfills one of three objectives: to instruct, persuade, or move;
and its method is reduced to urging (asking), ordering, questioning
Oratory is a quality so tied to political leadership that it can
be said that the history of political orators is the political
history of humanity, an affirmation upheld by names such as Cicero,
Demosthenes, Danton, Mirabeau, Robespierre, Clemenceau, Lenin,
Trotsky, Mussolini, Hitler, Roosevelt, etc.
in a Speech
terms, the most appreciated qualities of a speech, and specifically
a political speech in the context of the psychological action
of the armed struggle, are the following:
- Be brief
and concise: A length of five minutes [line missing in Spanish
text] . . . that of the orator who said: "If you want a two-hour
speech, I'll start right now; if you want a two-minute one, let
me think awhile."
on the theme: The speech should be structured by a set of organized
ideas that converge on the theme. A good speech is expressed by
concepts and not only with words.
- Logic: The
ideas presented should be logical and easily acceptable. Never
in the mind of the audience, since immediately the main thing
is lost credibility. As far as possible, it is recommended that
all speeches be based on a syllogism, which the orator should
adjust in his exposition. For example: "Those governing get
rich and are thieves; the Sandinistas have enriched themselves
governing; then, "the Sandinistas are thieves." This
could be the point of a speech on the administrative corruption
of the regime. When an
idea or a set of guiding ideas do not exist in a speech, confusion
and dispersion easily
of a Speech
does not exist in oratory. All orators have a "mental plan"
that allows them to organize their ideas and concepts rapidly;
with practice it is possible to come to do this in a few seconds,
almost simultaneously with the expression of the word.
The elements that make up a speech are given below, in a structure
that we recommend always putting into practice, to those who wish
to more and more improve their oratorical abilities:
or Preamble: One enters into contact with the public, a personal
can be made or one of the movement to which we belong, the reason
for our presence, etc.
In these first seconds it is important to make an impact, attracting
attention and provoking interest among the audience. For that
purpose, there are resources such as beginning with
a famous phrase or a previously prepared slogan, telling a dramatic
or humorous story, etc.
or Enunciation: The subject to be dealt with is defined, explained
as a whole or by parts.
or Argumentation: Arguments are presented, EXACTLY IN THIS ORDER:
the negative arguments, or against the thesis that is going to
be upheld, and then the
positive arguments, or favorable ones to our thesis, immediately
adding proof or facts that sustain such arguments.
or Conclusion: A short summary is made and the conclusions of
the speech are spelled out.
Action by the public is called for, i.e., they are asked in an
almost energetic manner to do or not to do something.
5. Some Literary
exist typically oratorical devices of diction, in truth, oratory
has taken from other literary genres a large number of devices,
several of which often, in an unconscious manner, we use in our
daily expressions and even in our speeches.
Below we enunciate many of the literary devices in frequent use
in oratory, recommending to those interested moderate use of them,
since an orator who overuses the literary device loses authenticity
and sounds untrue.
The devices that are used the most in oratory are those obtained
through the repetition of words in particular periods of the speech,
or repetition of a word at the beginning of each sentence, e.g.,
"Freedom for the poor, freedom for the rich, freedom for
all." In the reiteration, repetition is of a complete sentence
(slogan) insistently through the speech, e.g., "With God
and patriotism we will overcome Communism because . . ."
is the repetition at the end of every phrase, e.g.: "Sandinismo
tries to be about everyone, dominate everyone, command everyone,
and as an absolute tyranny, do away
- In the emphasis,
repetition is used at the beginning and at the end of the clause,
"Who brought the Russian-Cuban intervention? The Sandinistas.
And who is engaged in
arms trafficking with the neighboring countries? The Sandinistas.
And who is proclaiming
to be in favor of nonintervention? The Sandinistas."
when the phrase begins with the same word that ends the previous
For example: "We struggle for democracy, democracy and social
concatenation is a chain made up of duplications. For example:
the deception of the child to the young man, of the young man
to the adult, and of the adult
to the old man."
- In the antithesis
or word play, the same words are used with a different meaning
to give an ingenious effect: e.g., "The greatest wealth of
every human being is his own freedom,
because slaves will always be poor but we poor can have the wealth
of our freedom."
- Similar cadences,
through the use of verbs of the same tense and person, or nouns
of the same number and case. For example: "Those of us who
are struggling we will be marching because he who perseveres achieves,
and he who gives up remains."
- Use of synonyms,
repetition of words with a similar meaning. For example: "We
demand a Nicaragua for all, without exceptions, without omissions."
Among the figures of speech most used in oratory are:
or simile, which sets the relationship of similarity between two
beings or things. For example: "Because we love Christ, we
love his bishops and pastors," and "Free as a bird."
or the counterposition of words, ideas, or phrases of an opposite
meaning. For example: "They promised freedom and gave slavery;
that they would distribute the wealth
and they have distributed poverty; that they would bring peace,
and they have brought
Among the logic figures are the following:
which is a skillful way to concede something to the adversary
in order to
better emphasize the inappropriate aspects, through the use of
expressions such as:
but, however, although, nevertheless, in spite of the fact that,
etc. For example:
"The mayor here has been honest, but he is not the one controlling
all the money of
the nation." It is an effective form of rebuttal when the
opinion of the audience is not
in which one apparently accedes to something, when in reality
it is rejected.
For example: "Do not protest, but sabotage them." "Talk
quietly, but tell it to everyone."
is an anticipated refutation. For example: "Some will think
that they are only promises; they will say, others said the same
thing, but no. We are different, we are Christians, we consider
God a witness to our words."
is an artifice, pretending discretion when something is said with
total clarity and indiscretion. For example: "If I were not
obligated to keep military secrets, I would tell all of you of
the large amount of armaments that we have so that you would feel
even more confidence that our victory is assured."
is a way to ask and give the answer to the same question. For
"If they show disrespect for the ministers of God, will they
respect us, simple citizens?
questions are a way in which one shows perplexity or inability
to say something, only as an oratorical recourse. For example:
"I am only a peasant and can tell you little. I know little
and I will not be able to explain to you the complicated things
Therefore, I talk to you with my heart, with my simple peasant's
heart, as we all are."
- Litotes is
a form of meaning a lot by saying little. For example: "The
have stolen little, just the whole country."
- Irony consists
of getting across exactly the opposite of what one is saying.
For example: "The divine mobs that threaten and kill, they
are indeed Christians."
is presenting an idea from several angles. For example: "Political
the power of the people in a democracy. And economic votes are
their power in the
economy. Buying or not buying something, the majorities decide
what should be produced. For something to be produced or to disappear.
That is part of economic democracy."
The most usual plaintive figures of speech are:
or entreaty to obtain something. For example: "Lord, free
us from the yoke.
Give us freedom."
Imprecation or threat, expressing a sentiment in view of the unjust
For example: "Let there be a Homeland for all or let there
be a Homeland for no one."
similar to the previous one, presents a bad wish for the rest.
"Let them drown in the abyss of their own corruption."
- The apostrophe
consists of addressing oneself towards something supernatural
inanimate as if it were a living being. For example: "Mountains
of Nicaragua, make the
seed of freedom grow."
consists of asking a question of oneself, to give greater emphasis
to what is expressed. It is different from communication, since
it gives the answer and is of a logical
and not a plaintive nature. For example: "If they have already
murdered the members of
my family, my friends, my peasant brothers, do I have any path
other than brandishing a weapon?"
consists of leaving a thought incomplete, intentionally, so that
mentally the audience completes it. For example, "They promised
political pluralism and gave totalitarianism. They promised social
justice, and they have increased poverty. They
offered freedom of thought, and they have given censorship. Now,
what they promise
the world are free elections . . ."